Unit 1.3 – Questions

1. What is life-cycle assessment when applied to biofuels?

a. An evaluation of the energy balance in production and utilization of the biofuel
b. An accounting of all greenhouse gas emissions generated in the production of the biofuel, including both agricultural and industrial processes
c. An accounting of human health impacts of production and utilization of the biofuel
d. All of the above.


2. What are the food vs. fuel concerns with respect to bioenergy?

a. Diversion of food crops for use in bioenergy
b. Diversion of land that could be utilized for food crops toward cultivation of bioenergy crops
c. Concern that small scale farmers in developing countries will produce and sell bioenergy commodity crops to the detriment of utilizing land, labor, and capital for the production of food crops
d. Concern that policy initiatives will incentivize research and development of energy crops to the deficit of research and development initiatives that increase the productivity (and other attributes) of food crops.
e. All of the above.


3. True or False: Bioenergy has the potential to be carbon-neutral.

a. True
b. False


4. Why consider using marginal lands for bioenergy crops?

a. Cultivation of agricultural row-crops on marginal lands can lead to high rates of soil erosion; cultivation of perennial grass crops on these lands would minimize environmental degredation.
b. Cultivation of perennial crops on marginal lands would not compete with land for food crops.
c. Conversion of steep or wet land currently in food crop production to less intensive bioenergy crops has the potential to generate more ecosystem services.
d. All of the above.


5. What is the relationship between ecosystem service trade-offs and bioenergy crops?

a. Bioenergy crop production will reduce the ability of natural ecosystems to regulate natural processes.
b. Use of land to grow bioenergy crops will reduce the net productive output of that land and the ecosystem associated with it.
c. Bioenergy crop production will impede regulating and supportive functions of ecosystems.
d. Use of land for one function may alter the ecosystem such that it detract from other functions or services provided by that ecosystem.


Unit 1.3 Answers