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Additional References

Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network (BFIN;

Biomass Energy Resource Center (BERC;

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Lewandowski, I, JMO Scurlock, E Lindvall and M Christou. 2003. The development and current status of perennial rhizomatous grasses as energy crops in the US and Europe. Biomass and Bioenergy 25:335-361.

McLaughlin SB and LA Kszos. 2005. Development of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a bioenergy feedstock in the United States. Biomass and Bioenergy 28:515-535.

Purdue University – Extension, Renewable Energy: Bioenergy (

Renewable Energy Policy Project, Bioenergy (

Schmer, MR and KP Vogel, RB Mitchell and RK Perrin. 2008. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States 105:464-469.

Tilman D, J Hill and C Lehman. 2006. Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass. Science 314:1598-1600.

Tonn, B, U Thumm and W Claupein. 2010. Semi-natural grassland biomass for combustion: influence of botanical composition, harvest date and site conditions on fuel composition. Grass and Forage Science 65:383-397.

United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Biomass Conversion: emerging technologies, feedstocks, and products”:

Varvel, GE, KP Vogel, RB Mitchell, RF Follet and JM Kimble. 2008. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for bioenergy. Biomass and Bioenergy 32:18-21.

U.S. Department of Energy. 2011. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry. R.D. Perlack and B.J. Stokes (Leads), ORNL/TM-2011/224. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. 227p.  Available at: (verified 12/6/11).

U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Biomass Program. 2010. National Algal Biofuels technology Roadmap. Available at:

Willyard, CJ and SM Tikalsky. 2006. The potential supply of forest biomass and its relationship to biodiversity. Wisconsin Focus on Energy Environmental Research Program. ECW Project Code: 4900-02-02. Available at:;

Wisconsin Bioenergy Atlas, The Wisconsin Bioenergy Information and Outreach Network.  Available at:

Wullschleger, SD, EB Davis, ME Borsuk, CA Gunderson and LR Lynd. 2010. Biomass production in switchgrass across the United States: database description and determinants of yield. Agronomy Journal 102:1158-1168.