Conclusions

Water use in ethanol production includes both consumptive water use for crop growth and water used in processing facilities. Processing facilities have dramatically reduced consumptive water use over the past 20 years. With practices like Zero Liquid Discharge, consumptive use of water in state-of-the-art ethanol facilities can be less than 1.0 gallon of water for each gallon of ethanol. Water embodied in ethanol, or any biofuel, is greatest when the feedstock is grown with irrigation.

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