Bioenergy Water Use in Ethanol Production

  2. Chiu, Y.-U., B. Walseth, and S. Suh., Water Embodied in Bioethanol in the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 2688–2692.
  3. Keeney, D. and M. Muller.  2006.  Water Use by Ethanol Plants: Potential Challenges. Environment and Agriculture Program, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, Minneapolis, MN, October 2006.
  4. Consumptive Water Use in the Production of Bioethanol and Petroleum Gasoline, Wu, M.,  M. Mintz, M. Wang, and S. Arora, Center for Transportation Research Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory.
  5. 2008 National Dry Mill Corn Ethanol Survey, Steffen Mueller, University of Illinois at Chicago
  6. Renewable Fuels Association <>
  7. Ethanol Producer Magazine,
  8. From “POET Biorefining Water Use” presented by Doug Berven, October 28, 2009, at Heartland Regional Water Initiative Conference,

Crop Growth Water Use in Ethanol Production

  1. Corn Grain as an Ethanol Feedstock.  Crop Watch: Bioenergy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
  2. “Water Embodied in Bioethanol in the United States,” was published in the March 10 issue of Environmental Science & Technology
  3. National Research Council. Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States; National Academies Press: Washington, D.C., 2008; pp 19-25.
  4. de Fraiture, C.; Giordano, M.; Liao, Y. Biofuels and implications for agricultural water use: Blue impacts of green energy. Water Policy 2008, 10 (S1), 67–81.
  5. Pimentel, D. Ethanol fuels: Energy balance, economics, and environmental impacts are negative. Nat. Resour. Res. 2003, 12 (2), 127–134.
  6. Pimentel, D.; Patzek, T. W. Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower. Nat. Resour. Res. 2005, 14 (1), 65–76.
  7. Grassini, Patricio and Kenneth G. Cassman. “Corn Yield Potential and Input-Use Efficiency.” UNL Department of Agronomy and Horticulture.
  8. Consumptive Water Use in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline M. Wu, M. Mintz, M. Wang, and S. Arora, 2009.  Center for Transportation Research Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, January 2009, ANL/ESD/09-1
  9. Perlack, et al. 2005, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, USDA and DOE report, April 2005.
  10. Pate, R., M. Hightower, C. Cameron, and W. Enfield. 2007.  Overview of Energy-Water Interdependencies and The Emerging Demands on Water Resources, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquergue, NM, SAND 2007-1349C.

Water Use by Woody Biomass

  1. “Cellulosic Ethanol.” Renewable Fuels Association.
  2. Tolbert, V. and A. Schiller. “Environmental Enhancement Using Short-Rotation Woody Crops and Perennial Grasses as Alternative to Traditional Agricultural Crops.” Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
  4. Cassman, K., V. Eidman, and E. Simpson. “Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Research and Policy.” CAST Commentary (2006).
  5. State Energy Conservation Office (Texas).
  6. CALS Bioenergy Feedstock Project: Energy Crops. Cornell University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.
  7. Perrin, R., K. Vogel, M. Schmer and R. Mitchell. “Farm-Scale Production Cost of Switchgrass for Biomass.” University of Nebraska. Bioenerg. Res. (2008) 1:91-97.
  8. Sarath, G., R. Mitchell, S. Sattler, D. Funnell, J. Pedersen, R. Graybosch, and K. Vogel. “Opportunities and roadblocks in utilizing forages and small grains for liquid fuels.” University of Nebraska-Lincoln. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol (2008) 35:343-354.
  9. United Nations Foundation
  10. Vadas, P., K. Barnett, and D. Undersander. “Economics and Energy of Ethanol Production from Alfalfa, Corn, and Switchgrass in the Upper Midwest, USA.” University of Nebraska. Bioenerg. Res. (2008) 1:44-55.
  11. Varvel, Gary E., K. Vogel, R. Mitchell, R. Follett, and J. Kimble. “Comparison of Corn and Switchgrass on Marginal Soils for Bioenergy.” USDA Ag Research Service—Lincoln, Nebraska.“switchgrass+yield+compared+to+corn